The IRS has released the 2020 contribution limits for retirement plans and other cost-of-living adjustments.
Maximum Employee Contributions to Defined Contribution Plans: Increase
For employees with 401(k), 403(b), most 457 plans, or the federal government’s Thrift Savings Plan, the contribution limit for 2020 has increased from $19,000 to $19,500. Front-loading your 401(k)? Your contribution strategy could cost you.
Annual Catch-up Contributions for Employees Over 50: Increase
Workers over 50 years old with defined contribution plans (401(k), 403(b), most 457 plans, or the federal government’s Thrift Savings Plan) can expect a $500 increase on the catch-up contribution limit, for a total of $6,500 in 2020. Next year individuals 50+ will be able to save $26,000 annually in their defined contribution plan.
Overall Contribution Limit (Employer + Employee) for Defined Contribution Plans: Increase
The overall annual additions limit has increased $1,000 to $57,000 in 2020. The total sum of employee contributions, employer additions, and employer profit-sharing contributions cannot exceed $57,000. Catch-up contributions for individuals age 50 or older are not included in the overall limit.
Self-employed and Small Business Owners: SEP IRA and Solo 401(k) Limits: Increase
The total annual contribution limit for both SEP IRAs and Solo 401(k)s has increased $1,000 to $57,000 in 2020. However, the amount that can actually be added each year is subject to an additional limitation: a percentage of W-2 earnings or net self-employment income. In 2020, the compensation limits for these calculations increased $5,000 to $285,000.
SEP IRAs are funded solely by employer contributions. Solo 401(k) plans can be funded by a business owner in two ways: as the employee and the employer, subject to the maximum annual additions limit. Like a traditional 401(k) plan, maximum employee contributions in 2020 has increased $500 to $19,500 for the solo 401(k). As previously mentioned, the employer component is subject to limitations based on earnings. Learn more about retirement planning for small business owners.
SIMPLE IRA and SIMPLE 401(k) Contributions: Increase
Assuming the employee does not participate in another retirement plan, the maximum contribution to a SIMPLE IRA or SIMPLE 401(k) plan will increase $500 in 2020 to $13,500. The catch-up contribution for those over age 50 remains unchanged at $3,000.
However, an employer may either make matching contributions or nonelective contributions to the plan. If the employer makes nonelective contributions, the covered compensation limit has increased to $285,000 in 2020.
Traditional IRAs: No Change
Note: income limits on deductible contributions have changed.
The annual contribution limit for traditional IRAs will remain $6,000 in 2020. The additional catch-up contribution for those over age 50 will not increase and remain at $1,000. Just about any individual with earned income under age 70 1/2 can contribute to a traditional IRA, however their additions may not be deductible. In 2020 the income phase-out bands that determine whether all (or a portion of) contributions are deductible will increase slightly. Learn more about traditional vs Roth IRAs.
The Deductible IRA Limits for 2020
Below are the limits for investors looking to make a tax-deductible IRA contribution in 2020. Note, even if your income exceeds the limits below, you can likely still make a non-deductible contribution up to $6,000, but be aware of the downsides.
If you/your spouse ARE covered by a retirement plan at work at any point during the year:
Tax Filing Status & Modified Adjusted Gross Income Limits
|Deduction||Single||Married filing jointly|
|Full||$65,000 or less||$104,000 or less|
|Partial; deduction begins to phase out||More than $65,000 and less than $75,000||More than $104,000 and less than $124,000|
|Non-deductible||Above $75,000||Above $124,000|
If you/your spouse are NOT covered by a retirement plan at work during the year:
Tax Filing Status & Modified Adjusted Gross Income Limits
|Deduction||Single and married filing jointly (neither spouse covered)||Married filing jointly - one spouse covered|
|Full||Any||$196,000 or less|
|Partial; deduction begins to phase out||More than $196,000 and less than $206,000|
Roth IRAs: No Change
Note: income limits on regular contributions have increased, but not the maximum funding.
Like the traditional IRA, the contribution limits will stay the same in 2020, at $6,000 with a $1,000 catch-up contribution for investors 50 or older. The income phase-out limits will also increase: the phase-out range for single filers in 2020 is between $124,000 - $139,000 and for married couples filing jointly $196,000 - $206,000. Learn more about Roth strategies for high-earning taxpayers after tax reform.
Defined Benefit Pension Plans: Increase
If you're lucky enough to still have a pension, the annual benefit limit has increased in 2020 to $230,000.
Health Savings Accounts (HSAs): Increase
Health savings accounts will see a minor increase in 2020 to the pre-tax contribution limit and annual out-of-pocket expense limit. The annual deductible floor for a plan to qualify as a high deductible health plan remains unchanged. To qualify to use a HSA you must have a high deductible health plan (HDHP).
HDHPs must have a minimum annual deductible of $1,400 for individual plans and $2,800 for family plans, a small increase from 2019. The maximum annual out-of-pocket expenses cannot exceed $6,900 for individual plans and $13,800 for family plans.
In 2020, qualified participants may make pre-tax contributions of up to $3,550 for individual plans and $7,100 for family plans. Individuals age 55 or older can make catch-up contributions of $1,000 in 2020. Learn more about HSAs.
Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs): Increase
Employer-sponsored flexible spending accounts can have two components: a health FSA and/or a dependent care FSA. In 2020, annual contributions to a health FSA will increase $50 to $2,750. The dependent care FSA will remain unchanged at $5,000 for single parents or married couples filing jointly. Learn more about FSAs.
Social Security Taxable Wage Base: Increase
FICA taxes, also called payroll tax: there will be another large increase to the Social Security taxable wage base in 2020 as it rises to $137,700, a $4,800 increase from 2019. The Social Security tax rate remains unchanged at 6.2% for the employer and 6.2% for the employee. The Social Security (OASDI) tax is in addition to the 1.45% Medicare tax (HI) which does not have an earnings limit. In addition, single individuals with income above $200,000 or $250,000 for married taxpayers will pay another .9% in Medicare taxes.
Federal Estate and Gift Tax Exemption: Increase
The estate and gift tax exemption is $11.58 million per person in 2020. For married couples, that's a combined $23.16 million. In 2019, the estate and gift tax exemption was $11.4 million, or $22.8 for married couples. The annual gift exclusion amount remains the same at $15,000 per person.